《乡村医生》的存在主义解读
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Abstract
This paper tries to analyze A Country Doctor written by Franz Kafka from the perspective of existentialism. Based on Jean-Paul Sartre's freedom concept, it is to exam the relationship between the country doctor and others who include the servant girl Rose, the groom, the sick boy and the people in the district represented by the boy’s family to get the reason for the country doctor’s failure of rescuing Rose, the sick boy and himself. That is, the country doctor’s tragedy mainly results from the situation and others, although he has made choices to take actions. Therefore, the theme of A Country Doctor is the concern for the living conditions in the absurd and embarrassing situation of modern society.
Keywords   A Country Doctor    Free Choice   Situation    Responsibility
 
本文对弗兰茨•卡夫卡的短篇小说《乡村医生》中的存在主义思想进行了分析。按照让•保罗•萨特的自由选择理论,围绕乡村医生与“他者”的关系进行多方面的阐述,“他者”包括侍女罗莎、马夫、病孩及病孩家属所代表的乡民,得出乡村医生虽然主观上选择去拯救罗莎、病孩和自己,但是由于身处“处境”和“他者”的限制之中,所以均以失败告终,在此基础上论证《乡村医生》的主题是对现代人生存处境的尴尬与荒谬的担忧。
关键词  乡村医生    自由选择   处境    责任      

Since the 20th century, German-speaking countries have been playing increasingly important roles in world literature. Thomas Mann, Franz Kafka and Bertolt Brecht are recognized as the most representative writers. Moreover, Kafka, along with Marcel Proust and James Joyce, is considered as the important founder of Western Modernist Literature.

Kafka is regarded by critics as one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. His main contribution to world literature consists of three parts. The first part is short stories published during his lifetime: Contemplation (a collection including eighteen  short stories), The Stoker, The Judgment, The Metamorphosis, In the Penal Colony, A Country Doctor (a collection including fourteen short stories), A Hunger Artist (including four short stories), and The Bucket Rider. Secondly, about thirty-four posthumous short stories, such as Description of a Struggle, A Hole in the Ground. The third part is three unpublished and unfinished novels, Amerika, The Trial, and Castle.

 

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